Companion gardening is the planting of two or more plants in close proximity for the benefit of one or all of them. Benefits provided by the companion plant may include:
An example of a plant giving off a chemical to deter pests is the marigold. It produces thiopene that repels nematodes. Therefore, the marigold makes a good companion plant for crops such as eggplants, parsley, and tomatoes—all which are subject to damage from nematodes. The mustard plant releases thiopene in soil. Thiopene inhibits the emergence of the cyst nematode that causes root rot in collards and Brussels sprouts. (1, page 395)
Chemical reactions may take place between plants. The common dandelion was held in higher esteem with earlier gardeners as a companion plant in orchards and vegetable patches. The dandelion not only attracts pollinating insects but it gives off ethylene, a gas that encourages fruit set and ripening. (1, page 107) Legumes fix nitrogen in soil and therefore are a good companion plant for corn, spinach, and lettuce.Plants that shade the soil might keep their neighbor crop from becoming parched and woody. Chervil makes sense as a companion for radish. Nicotiana (flowering tobacco) and cleome (spider flower) give lettuce the light shade it needs to grow later in the planting season. (1, page 107)Alyssum flowers attract hoverflies whose larvae devour aphids. (6, p. 13) Planting alyssum near broccoli, cabbage, Brussel sprouts, lettuce, and other plants commonly injured by aphids.While some companion plants protect their neighbors by repelling pests, others sacrifice themselves, luring pests away from other plants. In some cases, the trapping plant destroys the pests as well. As they feed, they get sick or lose their ability to lay eggs. Eighteenth-century growers recommended radishes as a “trap” for cabbage maggots. Oregano can be planted near cucumbers to repel cucumber beetles.An interplanted garden—one with many different kinds of plants chosen for sheer variety—can be healthier than a single-cropped one. Since different species flower and fruit at different times, there tends to be less competition for nutrients and moisture. Furthermore, the different odors, colors, and textures a heavily interplanted garden has seem to confuse pests, so it is more difficult for them to find their favorite food. A number of controlled experiments show that some common garden herbs and vegetables do indeed influence the health and growth of their neighbors. How many plants exert this power and to what extent remains to be discovered.
Books:1. Kowalchik, Claire, and William H. Hylton (eds.), Rodale’s Illustrated Encyclopedia of Herbs, Rodale Press, Emmaus, 1987.2. Oster, Doug, and Jessica Walliser, Grow Organic, St. Lynn’s Press, Pittsburgh, 2007.
Internet:3. Dgsgardening.btinternet.co.uk/companion.htm4. En.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_companion_plants5. Ext.nodak.edu/county/cass/horticulture/vegetables/companion.htm6. Ghorganics.com7. Organicgardening.com (enter Companion Planting in the “search” box)
2 Replies to “Companion Planting”
I want to start my garden early ioodnrs to get a head start on planting season. This is the first year I will be planting in my backyard : ) I also want to start an indoor herb garden so that I can have fresh herbs year-round. I have a good 3-tier shelf to use but I am not sure what kind of lights and light fixtures to buy and attach to it for best results and without spending a ton of money. thks!
I would suggest regular florescent shop lights. I’ve used them many times for just this purpose. They don’t have a full spectrum of light but if the fixture gets some daylight it should be OK. Even if if doesn’t seedlings may be a bit odd in color but they will be fine when they go outdoors. It is important to keep the lights just a few inches from the seedlings.
Most herbs need a lot of light. You will have to experiment to see if this set up works for whatever you want to grow.